Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum anemia

Article History

Submited : November 22, 2018
Published : January 5, 2019

Anemia is a major global health problem, especially in developing countries, the prevalence of postpartum anemia is in the range of 50-80%. SDKI (2015) claimed the prevalence of anemia in Kulon Progo were 49% and prevalence of adolescent anemia were 29,95%.  The prevalence of postpartum anemia has not been studied as extensively as pregnancy anemia. To assess the factors related of postpartum anemia in working area of basic health Wates. Method with analitic observational research type was used in the research. Subject of this research were postpartum mothers wich include in this research, with consecutive sampling technique. A chi-square and a multivariate logistic regression linear model was apllied to analize the factors of postpartum anemia. 60% of mother had postpartum anemia. The risk factors of postpartum anemia were pregnancy anemia (RR:2,195;95%CI:1,369-3,518), maternal age (RR:1,894;95%CI:1,361-3,171), parity (RR:2,000;95%CI:1,020-3,922), type of birth (RR:2,195;95%CI:1,369-3,518), birth weight (RR:1,974;95%CI:1,281-3,044). The most strongly factors with postpartum anemia were pregnancy anemia and type of birth.  Factors relating of postpartum anemia were pregnancy anemia, maternal age, parity, type of birth, and birth weight. The dominants factors were pregnancy anemia and type of birth. Health servicer should early screening to mother with factors of postpartum anemia to avoid postpartum anemia.

  1. World Health Organization. Postnatal care on the mother and newborn. (2014).
  2. Milman, N. Anemia — still a major health problem in many parts of the world ! 369–377 (2011). doi:10.1007/s00277-010-1144-5
  3. Butwick, A. J., Walsh, E. M., Kuzniewicz, M., Li, S. X. & Escobar, G. J. Patterns and predictors of severe postpartum anemia after cesarean section. Transfussion0, 1–9 (2016).
  4. Garrido, C. M. et al. Maternal anaemia after delivery : prevalence and risk factors Maternal anaemia after delivery : prevalence and risk factors. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. (Lahore).0, 1–5 (2017).
  5. Milman, N. Postpartum anemia I: definition, prevalence, causes, and consequences. (2011).
  6. Bergmann, R. L., Richter, R., Bergmann, K. E. & Dudenhausen, J. W. Prevalence and risk factors for early postpartum anemia. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol.150, 126–131 (2010).
  7. Pergialiotis V, Vlachos D, Protopapas A, Pappa K, V. G. Risk factors for severe perineal lacarations during childbirth. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet.125, 6–14 (2014).
  8. Sumarna, Nursanti, I. & Mawarti, R. Gambaran Kejadian Anemia pada Ibu Postpartum di RSUD Panembahan Senopati Bantul. (2016).
  9. Rakesh P, Gopichandran V, Jamkhandi D, Manjunath K, George K, P. J. Determinants of postpartum anemia among women from a rural population in Southern India. Int J Womens Heal.11 (6), 395–400 (2014).
  10. World Health Organization. Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevalence and control: a guide for programme managers Geneva. (2007).
  11. Kreamer K, Z. M. Nutritional anemia. Ger. sight life (2007).
  12. Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, Eriksen L, H. A. Reference intervals for haemoatological variables during normal pregnancy and postpartum in 434 healthy Danish women. (2007).
  13. Murray-Kolb LE, B. J. Iron deficiency and child and maternal health. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.89, 946S–950S (2009).
  14. Barroso F, Allard S, Kahan BC, Connolly C, Smathurst H, Choo L, et al. Prevalence of maternal anemia and its predictors: a multicentre study. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.159, 99–105 (2011).
  15. Parker JA, Barroso F, Standworth SJ, Spiby H, Hopewell S, Doree CJ, et al. Gaps in the evidence for prevention and treatment of maternal anemia: review of systematic reviews. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth12, 56 (2012).
  16. Worwood M. Estimation of body iron stores. 499–528 (2012). doi:
  17. Rubio-álvarez, A., Molina-alarcón, M. & Hernández-martínez, A. Incidence of postpartum anaemia and risk factors associated with vaginal birth. Women and Birth (2017). doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2017.09.020
  18. Xavier, U. i B., Monica, R. C., Fernandez, A. G. & y Emilio, P. P. Anemia en el Embarazo y el Posparto Inmediato. Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo. G Model MEDCLI-3535 1–7 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.medcli.2016.01.029
  19. Kavak, E. Ç. & Kavak, S. B. The association between anemia prevalence , maternal age and parity in term pregnancies in our city. doi:10.2399/prn.17.0251002
  20. Kavitha, N. (Indian I. of H. M. R. S. P. Is Young Maternal Age a Risk Factor for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Anemia in Indian? An Examination in Urban and Rural Areas. J. Health Manag.13(3), 279–300 (2011).
  21. Cantlay, A. Managing Teenage Pregnancy. InnovAiT8(9), 524–530 (2015).
  22. Al-farsi, Y. M., Brooks, D. R., Werler, M. M., Cabral, H. J. & Al-shafei, M. A. Effect of high parity on occurrence of anemia in pregnancy : a cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth11, 7 (2011).
  23. Iyengar, K. Early Postpartum Maternal Morbidity among Rural Women of Rajasthan India: A Community-based Study. 30, 213–225 (2012).
  24. Eo, U. et al. Anaemia in pregnancy : associations with parity , abortions and child spacing in primary healthcare clinic attendees in Trinidad and Tobago. 66–70 (2010).
  25. Hashim, N., Farooqi, M., Naqvi, S. & Jaffery, H. F. Moderate to severe during pregnancy. Prof. Med. J.21(2), 247–252 (2014).
  26. Varney, H. et al. Buku Ajar Asuhan Kebidanan. (EGC, 2008).
  27. Manuaba, C. Gawat darurat obstetri ginekologi dan sosial untuk profesi bidan. (2008).
  28. Pallasmaa, N. Cesarean Section - Short Term Maternal Complication. (2014).
  29. RCOG. Information for you Heavy bleeding after birth ( postpartum haemorrhage) Who is this information for ? 1–6 (2016).
  30. Jardine, J. E., Law, P., Hogg, M. & Murphy, D. Haemorrhage at caesarean section : a framework for prevention and research. 28, 492–498 (2016).
Pratiwi, I., Santoso, S., & Wahyuningsih, H. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum anemia. Jurnal Kesehatan Ibu Dan Anak, 12(2), 113-118.